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Lugar Takes Nunn-Lugar Arms Control to Africa

U.S. Sen. Dick Lugar (R-IN) leads a mission to Africa next week with a team of Pentagon arms control experts to help secure deadly biological diseases, in addition to destroying other lethal armaments.

“Deadly diseases like Ebola, Marburg, and Anthrax are prevalent in Africa,” said Lugar, the Ranking Member and former Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. “These pathogens can be made into horrible weapons aimed at our troops, our friends and allies, and even the American public. This is a threat we cannot ignore.”

Lugar and former Senator Sam Nunn (D-GA) developed the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction program in late 1991 to secure and destroy nuclear, chemical and biological weapons in the republics of the former Soviet Union. “We’ve discovered through Nunn-Lugar that Soviet scientists used pathogens from Africa to make biological weapons during the Cold War,” Lugar said. “Those weapons are being destroyed. Now we have to secure their sources.”

“Al Qaeda and other terrorist groups are active in Africa, and it is imperative that deadly pathogens stored in labs there are secure,” Lugar said. “Building cooperative programs with African countries are in our mutual security interests, and will also have the humanitarian effect of identifying and controlling new diseases that could quickly spread around the world.”

Lugar and the Pentagon team will inspect laboratories in Kenya and Uganda.  These labs are used to diagnose infectious diseases, study the nature of the diseases, and facilitate treatment to help prevent outbreaks.  Pentagon officials, however, have found insufficient security at the labs given the terrorist threat.

Secretary of Defense Robert Gates told Lugar his high-level participation will help ensure the governments of Kenya and Uganda agree to work closely with US government agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control, to secure these laboratories, and work cooperatively to help prevent future disease outbreaks. 

While in Africa, Lugar and Pentagon officials will also visit Burundi where experts from the State and Defense Departments are working with the government to destroy large numbers of small arms and light weapons (SALW), such as shoulder fired surface to air missiles, rocket propelled grenades, and AK-47 assault rifles.

The weapons are being destroyed under the Lugar-Obama program, which was established as part of Nunn-Lugar through legislation passed by Congress after Lugar and then Senator Barack Obama traveled to the former Soviet Union in 2005.

Burundi borders volatile areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo, and other African countries, and holds stores of weapons left from decades of conflict in the region.  Securing and destroying these weapons are critical to eliminating regional conflicts and potential terrorist attacks in the world.

Lugar’s visit to Burundi is intended to help demonstrate the importance of Lugar-Obama SALW destruction program, and encourage other countries to participate.

The Pentagon non-proliferation team accompanying Lugar is led by Andrew C. Weber, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Defense Programs; Ken Handelman, Acting Assistant Secretary of Defense for Global Strategic Affairs; and Kenneth A. Myers III, Director, Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

Before going to Africa, Lugar and Weber will address on November 8 the first international Conference on Science and International Security: Addressing the Challenges of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism to be held in Madrid, Spain.

The conference is sponsored by the Institute of Nuclear Fusion of the Polytechnic University of Madrid, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of California.

At the conference Lugar will present the first annual Nunn-Lugar International Global Science and Security Engagement Award to Javier Solana for his work as Secretary General of NATO and European Union High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy on Terrorism and Intelligence Cooperation.

In November 1991, Lugar and Nunn authored the Nunn-Lugar Act, which established the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program. This program has provided U.S. funding and expertise to help the former Soviet Union safeguard and dismantle its enormous stockpiles of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, related materials, and delivery systems.

In 2003, Congress adopted the Nunn-Lugar Expansion Act, which authorized the Nunn-Lugar Global program to operate outside the former Soviet Union to address proliferation threats. In 2004, Nunn-Lugar funds were committed for the first time outside of the former Soviet Union to destroy chemical weapons in Albania, under a Lugar-led expansion of the program. In 2007, Lugar announced the complete destruction of Albania’s chemical weapons.

The Nunn-Lugar scorecard now totals 7,599 strategic nuclear warheads deactivated, 791 intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) destroyed, 498 ICBM silos eliminated, 180 ICBM mobile launchers destroyed, 651 submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) eliminated, 492 SLBM launchers eliminated, 32 nuclear submarines capable of launching ballistic missiles destroyed, 155 bomber eliminated, 906 nuclear air-to-surface missiles (ASMs) destroyed, 194 nuclear test tunnels eliminated, 493 nuclear weapons transport train shipments secured, upgraded security at 24 nuclear weapons storage sites, built and equipped 20 biological monitoring stations, and neutralized 1569.5 metric tons of Russian and Albanian chemical weapons agent.

Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus are nuclear weapons free as a result of cooperative efforts under the Nunn-Lugar program. Those countries were the third, fourth and eighth largest nuclear weapons powers in the world.